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1. World Health Organisation declares a public emergency of international concern over Zika世界卫生组织宣告寨卡包含国际注目的公共卫生紧急事件1 February2月1日In global health, 2016 will be remembered as the year a little known virus made a major impact. It felt strangely familiar, but this time it wasnt Ebola making headlines around the world, it was Zika - a mosquito-borne virus being linked to a huge spike in the number of babies in Brazil born with brain defects.因为一种鲜为人知的病毒所导致的根本性影响,2016年将在全球公共卫生方面被人们铭记。这似曾相识,不过此次攀上全球头条新闻的不是埃博拉病毒,而是寨卡——一种通过蚊子传播的病毒,大脑不存在缺失的新生儿数量在巴西急遽减少与此有关。

World Health Organisation declared that the cluster of microcephaly cases and other neurological disorders were a public health emergency of international concern, it was a rallying cry for the international community to respond.世界卫生组织宣告小头症及其他神经系统失调疾病的愈演愈烈包含国际注目的公共卫生紧急事件,敦促国际社会合力应付。2.SpaceX demonstrates a big step towards fully reusable space craft美国太空探寻技术公司在航天器充份重复使用方面获得重大进展8 April4月8日It was an incredible achievement for SpaceX. The first stage rocket of one of its Falcon 9 launchers, having successfully lofted cargo to the International Space Station, managed to turn itself around, bleed off the enormous kinetic energy it had acquired while its main engines were burning, fly back down to Earth and land vertically - with balletic precision - on a rather tiny looking robotic barge floating somewhere in the Atlantic.美国太空探寻技术公司获得了一项令人难以置信的成就。“猎鹰9号”发射器的一级火箭在顺利将货物载运到国际空间站后,需要自律改向,获释了主发动机自燃获取的极大动能,飞到地球并横向迫降在飘浮在大西洋上的一艘非常小的自动驳船上,极为精准。

3. Portugal is entirely powered by renewable energy for four days葡萄牙几乎用于可再生能源供电四天7-11 May5月7日-11日Moving away from fossil fuels to renewable energy is surely the most important engineering and scientific challenge of our age.从化石燃料改向可再生能源,毫无疑问是我们这个时代最重要的工程挑战和科学挑战。Portugals achievement gives governments and energy companies a tangible example of how it can and does work, and why they should be investing in solar, wind, wave and other renewable technologies now.葡萄牙的成就解释这种改变是不切实际的,它为各国政府和能源公司获取了一个实实在在的范例,也告诉他他们为什么现在应当投资太阳能、风能、波浪能和其他可再生技术。

4. New reserves of helium discovered储氦新发现28 June6月28日In June this year, a collaboration between universities and industry announced that it had discovered a huge reserve of helium gas in Tanzania, using a new exploration technique.今年六月,一项大学和工业界的合作宣告,他们通过一种新的勘探技术在坦桑尼亚找到了一个储量极大的氦气田。5. Confirmation of the discovery of a nearby habitable planet证实找到近地宜居行星24 August8月24日The nearest star, Proxima Centauri, has a planet orbiting it not much bigger than Earth. Its year is only 11 days. But its in the habitable zone because Proxima Centauri is a red dwarf star about 100 times fainter than the sun. And theres hot news that a similar star, 40 light years away, may have three planets in its habitable zone.有一颗大小与地球相似的行星环绕着距离太阳最近的恒星——半人马座比邻星运转。


6. Our last universal common ancestor gets a makeover对“最后的联合祖先”的了解再次发生了好转25 July7月25日7. The legacy of a celebrated neuroscientist is contested一位知名神经学家的遗作引起的争议7 August8月7日In 1953, Patient HM had experimental brain surgery that left him with striking amnesia. Decades of subsequent research with HM by neuropsychologist Suzanne Corkin made a major contribution to our understanding of memory.1953年,病人HM因拒绝接受脑部实验手术患上了相当严重的健忘症。通过对HM展开数十年的先前研究,神经心理学家苏珊娜科金在人类对记忆的了解方面作出了重大贡献。

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Corkin died this year but shortly after, journalist Luke Dittrich published a book claiming Corkin buried inconvenient findings, shredded files, and acted unethically in gaining HMs consent.科金今年去世旋即后,记者卢克 迪特里希出版发行了一本书,声称科金挖出有利找到,毁约文件,并且用不道德的方式获得了HM的表示同意。8. Greenland sharks live for a very long time格陵兰鲨活得很幸11 August8月11日On our increasingly human-dominated planet we can still learn much from the lives of other species. The discovery this year that the Greenland shark lives for 400 years, making it the longest-living vertebrate, puts our hectic lives into perspective.在这个更加为人类所支配的星球上,我们依然可以从其他物种身上自学到很多东西。格陵兰鲨鱼可存活400年,是世界上最长寿的脊椎动物,这一找到让人类新的检视自己辛苦的人生。9. CO2 in the Earths atmosphere passes 400 parts per million地球大气中的二氧化碳浓度多达了百万分之400个单位28 September9月28日10. A bad marriage can lead to an early death差劲的婚姻不会造成英年早逝1 October10月1日This research involves a large longitudinal study of emotion in interactions within married couples.这项研究必须对夫妻对话时的情绪展开可观的横向研究。

Scientists get couples into the lab and looking at their stress levels while they have “difficult” conversations, finding that couples that deal with stress with positive emotions like laughter become less stressed, and tend to stay together for longer.科学家们让夫妻转入实验室,在他们开始“讨厌”对话时仔细观察他们的压力水平。研究找到,面临压力时,用笑等积极情绪减轻压力的夫妻在一起的时间往往更加幸。This year they looked at the use of negative strategies such as anger or stonewalling responses to conflict, and found that these predicted health-related changes over time in specific ways.今年,科学家们研究了对冲突展现出出有气愤、推迟的消极策略,他们找到,久而久之这些反应不会以某些特定方式伴随与身体健康涉及的变化。11. Arctic and Antarctic sea ice volumes both fall to an all-time low北极和南极海冰量皆降到历史最低水平17 November11月17日12. Scientists modify photosynthesis to boost crop yield科学家改进光合作用提升作物产量18 November11月18日Last month scientists at Illinois University made a breakthrough that could herald a second green revolution for world agriculture – they improved the efficiency of photosynthesis, the process by which plants turn sunlight into the biomass that is the source of all our food.伊利诺伊大学的科学家们上个月获得的突破性进展伴随着全球农业将步入第二次绿色革命——他们提升了光合作用的效率,这是植物将阳光转化成为生物量的过程,也是人类所有食物的来源。



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